Chromium

Maximum Contaminant Level

US EPA:

MCL – 0.01 mg/L or ppm

MCLG – zero

WHO Guideline – 0.01 mg/L

Chromium occurs in multiple chemical forms in our water. Naturally occurring trivalent chromium can be found in rocks, soil, fruit, vegetables, and meat. It is not considered to be a significant health risk and is actually one of the trace minerals that our bodies require to function properly.
Hexavalent chromium, however, does not occur naturally and can only be produced by certain chemical processes. It is used in the plating industry, paint production, as well as anti-corrosive alloy in steel and iron production. This form of chromium is more soluble and is toxic. It is considered to be a health risk whether it is inhaled, ingested, or even if it simply comes in contact with the skin. Exposure to elevated levels of hexavalent chromium can cause nausea, gastrointestinal distress, stomach ulcers, skin ulcers, allergic reactions, kidney and liver damage, reproductive problems, lung and nasal cancer.

Treatments to remove chromium from water include:

Trivalent

  • Reverse Osmosis
  • Distillation
  • Strong Acid Cation Resin

Hexavalent

  • Reverse Osmosis
  • Distillation
  • Strong Base Anion Resin
  • Weak Base Anion Resin

Organic Complexes

  • Reverse Osmosis
  • Activated Carbon